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 China Constitution


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Article 45 [Social Security]

(1) Citizens of the People's Republic of China have the right to material assistance from the state and society when they are old, ill, or disabled. The state develops the social insurance, social relief, and medical and health services that are required to enable citizens to enjoy this right.

(2) The state and society ensure the livelihood of disabled members of the armed forces, provide pensions for the families of martyrs, and give preferential treatment to the families of military personnel.

(3) The state and society help make arrangements for the work, livelihood and education of the blind, deafmutes and other handicapped citizens.

Article 46 [Education]

(1) Citizens of the People's Republic of China have the duty as well as the right to receive education.

(2) The state promotes the all-round moral, intellectual, and physical development of children and young people.

Article 47 [Research]

Citizens of the People's Republic of China have the freedom to engage in scientific research, literary and artistic creation, and other cultural pursuits. The state encourages and assists creative endeavors conducive to the interests of the people that are made by citizens engaged in education, science, technology, literature, art, and other cultural work.

Article 48 [Gender Equality]

(1) Women in the People's Republic of China enjoy equal rights with men in all spheres of life, political, economic, cultural, and social, including family life.

(2) The state protects the rights and interests of women, applies the principle of equal pay for equal work for men and women alike, and trains and selects cadres from among women.

Article 49 [Marriage, Family, Parentage]

(1) Marriage, the family, and mother and child are protected by the state.

(2) Both husband and wife have the duty to practice family planning.

(3) Parents have the duty to rear and educate their minor children, and children who have come of age have the duty to support and assist their parents.

(4) Violation of the freedom of marriage is prohibited. Maltreatment of old people, women, and children is prohibited.

Article 50 [Nationals Abroad]

The People's Republic of China protects the legitimate rights and interests of Chinese nationals residing abroad and protects the lawful rights and interests of returned overseas Chinese and of the family members of Chinese nationals residing abroad.

Article 51 [Interest of the State]

The exercise by citizens of the People's Republic of China of their freedoms and rights may not infringe upon the interests of the state, of society, and of the collective, or upon the lawful freedoms and rights of other citizens.

Article 52 [Unity]

It is the duty of citizens of the People's Republic of China to safeguard the unity of the country and the unity of all its nationalities.

Article 53 [Obedience to the Constitution]

Citizens of the People's Republic of China must abide by the Constitution and the law, keep state secrets, protect public property, and observe labor discipline and public order and respect social ethics.

Article 54 [Integrity of the Motherland]

It is the duty of citizens of the People's Republic of China to safeguard the security, honor, and interests of the motherland; they must not commit acts detrimental to the security, honor and interests of the motherland.

Article 55 [Defence]

(1) It is the sacred obligation of every citizen of the People's Republic of China to defend the motherland and resist aggression.

(2) It is the honorable duty of citizens of the People's Republic of China to perform military service and join the militia in accordance with the law.

Article 56 [Taxation]

It is the duty of citizens of the People's Republic of China to pay taxes in accordance with the law.

Chapter Three The Structure of the State

Section I The National People's Congress

Article 57 [Highest Organ of State Power]

The National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China is the highest organ of state power. Its permanent body is the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress.

Article 58 [Legislative Power]

The National People's Congress and its Standing Committee exercise the legislative power of the state.

Article 59 [Representation]

(1) The National People's Congress is composed of deputies elected from the provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government, and the special administrative regions, and of deputies elected from the armed forces. All the minority nationalities are entitled to appropriate representation.

(2) Election of deputies to the National People's Congress is conducted by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress.

(3) The number of deputies to the National People's Congress and the manner of their election are prescribed by law.

 



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