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 China Constitution

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Article 9 [Resources]

(1) Mineral resources, waters, forests, mountains, grassland, unreclaimed land, beaches, and other natural resources are owned by the state, that is, by the whole people, with the exception of the forests, mountains, grassland, unreclaimed land, and beaches that are owned by collectives in accordance with the law.

(2) The state ensures the rational use of natural resources and protects rare animals and plants. The appropriation or damage of natural resources by any organization or individual by whatever means is prohibited.

Article 10 [Land Ownership]

(1) Land in the cities is owned by the state.

(2) Land in the rural and suburban areas is owned by collectives except for those portions which belong to the state in accordance with the law; house sites and privately farmed plots of cropland and hilly land are also owned by collectives.

(3) The State may, in the public interest and in accordance with the provisions of law, expropriate or requisition land for its use and shall make compensation for the land expropriated or requisitioned.

(4) No organization or individual may appropriate, buy, sell or otherwise engage in the transfer of land by unlawful means. The right to the use of land may be transferred according to law.

(5) All organizations and individuals who use land must make rational use of the land.

Article 11 [Private Sector of the Economy]

(1) Individual, private and other non-public economies that exist within the limits prescribed by law are major components of the socialist market economy.

(2) The State protects the lawful rights and interests of the non-public sectors of the economy such as the individual and private sectors of the economy. The State encourages, supports and guides the development of the non-public sectors of the economy and, in accordance with law, exercises supervision and control over the non-public sectors of the economy.

Article 12 [Protection of Socialist Public Property]

(1) Socialist public property is sacred and inviolable.

(2) The state protects socialist public property. Appropriation or damage of state or collective property by any organization or individual by whatever means is prohibited.

Article 13 [Protection of Private Property]

(1) Citizens' lawful private property is inviolable.

(2) The State, in accordance with law, protects the rights of citizens to private property and to its inheritance.

(3) The State may, in the public interest and in accordance with law, expropriate or requisition private property for its use and shall make compensation for the private property expropriated or requisitioned.

Article 14 [Labor Productivity]

(1) The state continuously raises labor productivity, improves economic results and develops the productive forces by enhancing the enthusiasm of the working people, raising the level of their technical skill, disseminating advanced science and technology, improving the systems of economic administration and enterprise, operation and management, instituting the socialist system of responsibility in various forms, and improving organization of work.

(2) The state practices strict economy and combats waste.

(3) The state properly apportions accumulation and consumption, pays attention to the interests of the collective and the individual as well as of the state and, on the basis of expanded production, gradually improves the material and cultural life of the people.

(4) The State establishes a sound social security system compatible with the level of economic development.

Article 15 [Economic Planning]

The state has put into practice a socialist market economy. The State strengthens formulating economic laws, improves macro adjustment and control and forbids according to law any units or individuals from interfering with the social economic order.

Article 16 [State Enterprises]

Stated-owned enterprises have decision-making power in operation and management within the limits prescribed by law. State-owned enterprises practice democratic management through congresses of workers and staff and in other ways in accordance with the law.

Article 17 [Collective Economic Organizations]

Collective economic organizations have decision-making power in conducting independent economic activities, on condition that they abide by the relevant laws. Collective economic organizations practice democratic management, elect or remove their managerial personnel and decide on major issue concerning operation and management according to law.

Article 18 [Foreign Enterprises]

(1) The People's Republic of China permits foreign enterprises, other foreign economic organizations, and individual foreigners to invest in China and to enter into various forms of economic co-operation with Chinese enterprises and other economic organizations in accordance with the law of the People's Republic of China.

(2) All foreign enterprises and other foreign economic organizations in China, as well as joint ventures with Chinese and foreign investment located in China, shall abide by the law of the People's Republic of China. Their lawful rights and interests are protected by the law of the People's Republic of China.

Article 19 [Education]

(1) The state develops socialist educational undertakings and works to raise the scientific and cultural level of the whole nation.

(2) The state runs schools of various types, makes primary education compulsory and universal, develops secondary, vocational and higher education, and promotes pre-school education.

(3) The state develops educational facilities of various types in order to wipe out illiteracy and provide political, cultural, scientific, technical, and professional education for workers, peasants, state functionaries and other working people. It encourages people to become educated through independent study.

(4) The slate encourages the collective economic organizations, state enterprises and undertakings, and other social forces to set up educational institutions of various types in accordance with the law.

(5) The state promotes the nationwide use of Putonghua.


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