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 China Constitution

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Article 20 [Science]

The state promotes the development of the natural and social sciences, disseminates scientific and technical knowledge, and commends and rewards achievements in scientific research as well as technological discoveries and inventions.

Article 21 [Health]

(1) The state develops medical and health services, promotes modern medicine and traditional Chinese medicine, encourages and supports the setting up of various medical and health facilities by the rural economic collectives, state enterprises and undertakings and neighborhood organizations, and promotes public health activities of a mass character, all to protect the people's health.

(2) The state develops physical culture and promotes mass sports activities to build up the people's physique.

Article 22 [Culture]

(1) The state promotes the development of literature and art, the press, broadcasting, and television undertakings, publishing and distribution services, libraries, museums, cultural centers and other cultural undertakings, that serve the people and socialism, and sponsors mass cultural activities.

(2) The state protects places of scenic and historical interest, valuable cultural monuments, and treasures and other important items of China's historical and cultural heritage.

Article 23 [Intellectual Education]

The state trains specialized personnel in all fields who serve socialism, increases the number of intellectuals, and creates conditions to give full scope to their role in collective modernization.

Article 24 [Socialist Education]

(1) The state strengthens the building of socialist spiritual civilization through spreading education in high ideals and morality, general education, and education in discipline and the legal system, and through promoting the formulation and observance of rules of conduct and common pledges by different sections of the people in urban and rural areas.

(2) The state advocates the civic virtues of love of the motherland, of the people, of labor, of science, and of socialism; it educates the people in patriotism, collectivism, internationalism, and communism and in dialectical and historical materialism; it combats capitalist, feudal, and other decadent ideas.

Article 25 [Family Planning]

The state promotes family planning so that population growth may fit the plan for economic and social development.

Article 26 [Environment]

(1) The state protects and improves the living environment and the ecological environment, and prevents and remedies pollution and other public hazards.

(2) The state organizes and encourages afforestation and the protection of forests.

Article 27 [Administration]

(1) All state organs carry out the principle of simple and efficient administration, the system of responsibility for work, and the system of training functionaries and appraising their work in order constantly to improve quality of work and efficiency and combat bureaucratism.

(2) All state organs and functionaries must rely on the support of the people, keep in close touch with them, heed their opinions and suggestions, accept their supervision and work hard to serve them.

Article 28 [Public Order]

The State maintains public order and suppresses treasonable and other criminal activities that endanger State security; it penalizes actions that endanger public security and disrupt the socialist economy and other criminal activities, and punishes and reforms criminals.

Article 29 [Armed Forces]

(1) The armed forces of the People's Republic of China belong to the people. Their tasks are to strengthen national defence, resist aggression, defend the motherland, safeguard the people's peaceful labor, participate in national reconstruction, and work hard to serve the people.

(2) The state strengthens the revolutionization, modernization and regularization of the armed forces in order to increase the national defence capability.

Article 30 [Administrative Division]

(1) The administrative division of the People's Republic of China is as follows:

1. The country is divided into provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government;

2. Provinces and autonomous regions are divided into autonomous prefectures, counties, autonomous counties, and cities;

3. Counties and autonomous counties are divided into townships, nationality townships, and towns.

(2) Municipalities directly under the Central Government and other large cities are divided into districts and counties. Autonomous prefectures are divided into counties, autonomous counties, and cities.

(3) All autonomous regions, autonomous prefectures, and autonomous counties are national autonomous areas.

Article 31 [Special Administrative Regions]

The state may establish special administrative regions when necessary. The systems to be instituted in special administrative regions shall be prescribed by law enacted by the National People's Congress in the light of the specific conditions.

Article 32 [Rights of Foreigners]

(1) The People's Republic of China protects the lawful rights and interests of foreigners within Chinese territory, and while on Chinese territory foreigners must abide by the law of the People's Republic of China.

(2) The People's Republic of China may grant asylum to foreigners who request it for political reasons.


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