The history of Haikou originates from Han Dynasty. In 110B.C. (the first year of Western Han Dynasty), General Lu Bode of Fubo conquered Baiyue, and set two prefectures-Zhuya and Zhan'er-and 16 counties in Hainan. Haikou was under Zhuyadaimao County. In Tang Dynasty, Haikou became a port of Qiongzhou, and it was the transportation hub to the mainland.In Song Dynasty, in order to consolidate the frontier, Haikoupu was established, hence the name. In 1858 (the eighth year of Emperor Xianfeng), Haikou was opened up to be a trading port, the name was changed into Qiongzhou kou.
After that, the consulates of various countries were set up here gradually. In the early days of the People's Republic of China, its name was changed to Haikou. It was liberated on 23, April 1950, and the People's Government was founded on June 1, the same year. After liberation, Haikou was a city under the jurisdiction of the provincial government of Guangdong, and was the capital of Hainan administrative. In March 1983, it was declared to be an open city. In 1988, it became the capital city of Hainan Province.
Haikou lies in 19°57'04?-20°05'11? North Latitude and 110°10'18?-110°23'05? East Longitude, and in the north of Hainan Island. It borders on Qiongzhou Strait in the north, and is separated from the mainland for about 18 nautical miles. It is contiguous to Qiongshan (a city) in the southeast, and is close to Chengmai County in the west. The longest part is 25.6km from east to west, and the widest part is 15.1km from north to south. The circumference of the border is 84.75km, and the total area is 244.55sq km. The planned area is 1127sq km, and construction area of modern city is 34sq km.
Haikou is plain of the seashore for the most, and mainly consists of new and old deposits. High in the south and low in the north, it is low and flat.
Haikou is at the northern edge of the torrid zone, and it belongs to the monsoon tropical zone. The annual temperature is 23.8? on average. Summer is long and winter is short. There is no obvious change in different seasons. Daytime is long, so it is rich in sunlight. The rainfall here is plentiful, and the wind is a little bit strong. Every year, from April to October is the active period of tropical storm and typhoon, and most of them occurred between August and September.
May to October is the rainy season, and most of the rainfall comes in September, and the average precipitation is 300.7mm. July and august are the hottest months with the average temperature about 29?, and January, the coldest, with the temperature about 17.2?. It is suitable for tourism in all seasons, and the golden period is from October to the next April. When the north is covered with white snow, Haikou is still in green.
Natural Ecological Environment Haikou
The ecological environment in Haikou is perfect. The air pollution index is only 28, and it is superior to the first grade of the country's standard. It is the No.1 of all the large and medium sized cities in the country in terms of air quality. The quality of the groundwater in Haikou is fine, and it is basically mineral water. It is of the first class in the world, and the drinking water in city is up to the standard. Nowadays, 36.7% of the city area are covered with green. The a forestation rate is 40%, and the average public green belt is 8.5sq km. When you are walking in Haikou, you will find lines of green trees and beautiful flowers, and people can feel that there is life everywhere.
Ever since China carried out its reform and opening-up policy, especially during the 10 years of development after the establishment of Hainan Special Economic Zone, the economy in Haikou has made dramatic progress by taking advantage of the preferential policy of special economic zone, complying with international practice, adhering to reform, attaching great importance to creation, rapidly establishing the mechanism of a market economy, strengthening communications at home and abroad, attracting foreign capital widely and increasing investment. By now, Haikou has been upgraded to one of the leading cities in China. Economic development has consolidated the foundation since the adjustment of the economic structure in 1998. The economic growth rate reached 8.6% and GDP amounted to CNY 11.009 billion in 1998. Compared with the statistics in 1978 before reform and opening up, Haikou realized 17.7 times growth in GDP, 5.8 times in per capita GDP, 301 times in fixed assets investments, 46 times in fiscal revenue, 25 times in industry and 4.2 times in agriculture. Compared with the statistics in 1987 before the founding of the Special Economic Zone, Haikou achieved 47.5 times growth in electricity generation, 5 times in citizen's income. The actual amount of foreign capital investment reached US$4.57 billion from 1987 to 1998.
Hainan culture is the combination of traditional culture of mainland China, the culture of the border areas of south China and foreign cultures. On one hand, it maintains its traditional culture forms, such as Qiong Opera, Junpo Festival, Huanghua Festival, dragon and lion dances. On the other hand, it absorbs modern culture forms, such as Karaoke, KTV, singing and dancing performance, golf, bowling, sailing and surfing. Tourists can not only appreciate bamboo pole dance and coconut shell dance, but also play golf and go sailing on the sea.
A survey of Tourist Industry Haikou
Haikou, also known as Coconut City, lies in the northernmost end of Hainan Island, which is the second largest island in China. It is the capital city of the largest special economic zone in China. It is at the western bank of the estuary of Nandu River, which is the largest river on the island. Hence the name Haikou.
Tourism in Haikou develops at the same speed with the growth of Hainan Special Economic Zone. Haikou is unique in tourism resources. It lies in the northern part of tropical belt, and it belongs to Tropical Island Monsoon Climate.
It is suitable for tour all year round. Facing sea on 3 sides, Haikou enjoys fresh air and is selected to be a Trial City of Health by World Health Organization of the United Nations. It is one of the few coastal cities with unpolluted ecological environment.
Along the coastline stretching 27.25 kilometers long, Haikou has a lot of sea bathing beach land and resorts with nice sand and picturesque views, such as Holiday Beach, Xixiu Beach, Baishamen Beach, Xinbu Beach, among which Holiday Beach is the best place for sea swimming, bathing and sightseeing of the city, while Xixiu Beach is the training and racing base for Chinese National Sailing Team.
Haikou is rich in tourist resources. It has Wugong Temple, which is the famous tourist attraction in Haikou, Tomb of Mr. Hai Rui, and Xiuying Ancient Cannon Fort, which is one of the 4 ancient cannon forts. Huanhua Festival, usually on January 15 in Chinese Lunar Calendar, is an important folk activity. Hainan International Coconut Festival has gained its popularity at home and abroad. Newly built wanly park, Jinniuling Park, and Seaside Park are attractive to tourists.
At present, Haikou boasts 73 hotels for tourists with 10,813 guestrooms and 20,587 beds. 24 hotels are star-rated. There are two 5-star hotels, three 4-star hotels, fourteen 3-star hotels, and five 2-star hotels in Haikou. Haikou owns 174 travel agencies, among which 39 are international travel agencies and 135 are domestic ones. 560 tourist buses with over 15 seats and 1,800 tour guides with certificates issued by China National Tourism Administration are in service in Haikou. In 1998, tourists arrivals reached 2.5678 million, of which 0.1462 million were overseas tourists, and Haikou received 21,900 same-day tourists, who are mainly from Hong Kong by cruises.
Haikou Meilan International Airport has already been put into operation with a passenger capacity of 6 million each year. It will sustain its position as one of the top 10 airports in China. Expressways going west to Yangpu and east to Sanya from Haikou and a ring road on the island will be completed by the end of 1999. The Yuehai Underground Railway Tunnel, which is 18km long below Qiongzhou Qiongzhou strait, is under construction now. Its completion in 2001 will ultimately solve the transportation problem of Hainan Island with the Mainland.
Haikou has convenient facilities for food, entertainment and shopping. It owns a lot of restaurants at various levels and you will find all kinds of local flavors in the food streets. Coconut series and 4 kinds of famous Hainan dishes with local flavors (Wenchang Chicken, Dongshan Mutton, Jiaji Duck, and Hele Crab) are available to tourists in hotels and restaurants. Nightlife is colorful in Haikou. You can easily get access to amusement programs, recreational parks, nightclubs and shopping centers.
With the project of becoming one of the Top Tourist Cities in China, Haikou makes unremitting efforts to improve its level of service in terms of food, accommodation, transportation, sightseeing, shopping and entertainment. The tourist market is disciplined and the tourist industry is transforming form supplying sightseeing products alone to an integration of sightseeing, vacation and convention. Haikou now has become one of the most popular tourist cities in South China.
City Tree Haikou
Coconut palm is the symbol of Hainan and it has typical characteristics of the south. Coconut palms can be found everywhere in Haikou. Standing straight and exuberant all year round, coconut palm represents the straightforwardness, union and hardworking of Haikou people. With sea on 3 sides, Haikou is no doubt a pleasant land with bright sunshine, blue seawater, nice beach land, fresh air and green coconut palms.
Coconut palm is approved to be the city tree of Haikou on the First Session of the Ninth Haikou People's Congress on July 31, 1987.
Tourism Logo Haikou
Symbolizing an eye of a tourist, the logo of Haikou tourism is round. The sun indicates the sunshine, the coconut palms refer to Coconut City, the seawater indicates Haikou is a coastal city and the construction outline indicates it's being new. The pattern implies the overall image of Hainan tourism and it reflects the unique feature of the tropical and coastal city. H.K.T stands for the abbreviation of "Haikou Tourism"